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Архивы рубрики: An Introduction to Engine Testing and Development

Glossary of Terms and Acronyms Used in the Design and Testing of Internal Combustion Engines

AAFI—Air-assisted fuel injection. ABI—Advanced break-in. Absorbed horsepower—Total horsepower absorbed by the absorption unit of the dynamometer and the friction components of the dynamometer. Accelerated life test—Any set of test conditions designed to reproduce in a short time the effects encountered in the field. Actual horsepower—The actual horsepower is the load horsepower that includes the friction

Mathematical Basis for Power Correction Factor

The power output for a given engine type is dependent largely on the air mass flow rate that it achieves. This will vary as the pressure, humidity, and temperature of the air it inducts changes. The basis for the correction factors used to standardize power and volumetric efficien­cies is the equation for one-dimensional steady compressible

Second Law of Thermodynamics

Although the net heat supplied in a cycle is equal to the net work done, the gross heat supplied must be greater than the net work done. That is, Qj > W And hence the thermal efficiency of a heat engine will be less than 100%. Consider the Otto cycle. By calculating the heat supplied

First Law of Thermodynamics

When a system undergoes a thermodynamic cycle, then the net heat supplied to the system from its surroundings is equal to the net work done by the system on its sur­roundings. This is based on the conservation of energy principle and in symbols can be represented as ЈdQ = ЈdW A system operating in a

Air/Fuel Ratio

The air/fuel ratio (AFR) mixture induced into the cylinder will ignite properly and com­bust only if the air/fuel ratio lies within a certain range. The normal operating range for a naturally aspirated spark ignition engine is between 12 and 18:1 AFR. Note that combustion limits for gasoline/air mixtures theoretically are 3:1 to 40:1 but practically

Efficiencies

How much energy reaches the flywheel (or dynamometer) compared to how much theo­retically could be released is a function of three efficiencies, namely, the following: 1. Thermal efficiency 2. Mechanical efficiency 3. Volumetric efficiency Thermal Efficiency Thermal efficiency can be quoted as either brake or indicated. Indicated efficiency is derived from measurements taken at the

Base Calculations

This chapter concentrates on the calculations involved when testing engines. A selection of base calculations is described, with appropriate usage and suitability of the calcula­tions. The chapter starts with some brief descriptions of the most common ones. Torque Backup Torque backup is best described as (Maximum torque — Torque at maximum speed) Torque at maximum

Implications of Quality Standards

What does this mean for engineers and test technicians? Test laboratories are, of neces­sity, quality environments because all the work performed is required to be traceable to a baseline of a known standard. For example, consider the following: • Your test procedures are developed generally to a recognized industry standard and where the test results

Quality Standards for Test Laboratories

Within the test industry, the quality standards that are applicable in other industries have a “stay in business” implication for test laboratories. For all quality standards to which a company is accredited, the accrediting bodies (e. g., British Standards Institute [BSI], Lloyd’s Register Quality Assurance [LQRA], or the United Kingdom Accreditation Service [UKAS]) will ensure

Quality Standards for Engine Testing

What are the objectives of testing internal combustion engines? Why test them? What does testing provide to the automotive engineer? The answer to all these questions is that testing is a means of comparing differing engine builds, one with another. It is an aid to engine development from Design Level One through production signoff. Testing