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Двигатели Стирлинга

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Двигатели Стирлинга

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Двигатели Стирлинга

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Архивы рубрики: Fuel Systems for IC Engines

Relationship between Pressure and Jet Breakup

Discharge velocity is a key parameter in the breakup process. As velocity rises, the order of jet breakup increases in line with the abscissa in the Ohnesorge diagram. In an idealized case, with an isothermal change of state, incompressible liquid and no friction, the maximum discharge velocity is calculated using Bernoulli’s equation as being U

Spray Breakup Process

Disintegration of a jet of liquid is determined by the stabilizing and deforming forces that act on it. A characteristic number describing the force ratio is the Weber number named after Moritz Weber (1871-1951). The dimensionless Weber number We is a measure of the relative importance of inertial force compared to surface tension a. As

PHYSICAL FUNDAMENTALS Mixture Formation

Mixture formation in DI engines is largely determined by the way fuel behaves during injection. The behavior of fluids on leaving a nozzle is defined by spray breakup. This can be divided into various regimes that are distinguished by droplet size and spray geometry. It is shown that spray breakup is defined by flow properties

Effects of highly-heated fuel and/or high injection pressures on the spray formation of gasoline direct injection injectors

M Sens, J Maass, S Wirths, R Marohn IAV GmbH, Germany ABSTRACT The Gasoline Direct Injection technology is one of the main approaches to make gasoline engines more efficient. Unfortunately they still suffer on a relatively bad mixture preparation quality compared to premixed MPI engines. Therefore it is important to find parameters/technical solutions which will

Flow field with fuel injection (single and triple injection)

Results obtained from spray imaging showed that the fuel spray impinged onto the piston crown before propagating towards the liner wall. This spray motion was in the opposite direction to the charge motion captured within this same region. It can be concluded that during this early stage of the impingement process the flow momentum was

Flow field without fuel injection

Prior to discussing the flow field structures at the fuel impingement locations, it is necessary to comment on the development of flow field structures throughout the cylinder during intake and compression. During intake, flow entering the cylinder over the intake valve annulus in the region closest to the liner wall was immediately directed downwards along

In-cylinder charge motion

To understand the role the air motion has in transporting the deposited fuel away from these locations, high speed, 5 kHz, was completed in the region close to the liner wall where fuel impingement was previously shown to occur. To achieve this, high speed, 5 kHz, PIV was completed over a 30 mm measurement region

Triple injection

The previous discussion focused on the sensitivity of the single injection strategy to changes in lambda ratio. During stoichiometric operation only a small percentage of the total captured engine cycles demonstrated the formation of high intensity regions within the cylinder, while testing at conditions rich of stoichiometric highlighted a significant increase in these regions. Comparison

Single injection

Combustion imaging was first completed for the single injection strategy at stoichiometric (X = 1.00) and fuel rich (X = 0.95, 0.90 and 0.85) operating conditions. The lambda ratio was controlled by increasing the mass of fuel injected into the cylinder during each pulse, while maintaining a fixed engine speed of 1500 rpm and manifold

Combustion imaging

It is understood that if the liquid fuel deposited onto the combustion chamber walls during the fuel impingement process has not fully evaporated prior to the propagating flame front interacting with this region, then the liquid fuel burns as a diffusion flame increasing particulate matter (PM) and hydrocarbon emissions (HC). Furthermore, engine-out emissions are dependent